Below is a summary of an article published in June 2020 by Current Diabetes Reports as part of the Topical Collection on Immunology, Transplatation and Regenerative Medicine. Russell Health, Inc. distributes amniotic membrane products, which are considered Stem Cell Recruitment Therapy® products.
The amniotic membrane is the innermost layer of the human placenta and encloses and protects the fetus in the amniotic cavity. It is composed of five different layers that include epithelial cells, a basement membrane, an extracellular matrix, a mesenchymal cell layer, and a spongy layer that separates the amnion from the chorion, which is the outermost membrane surrounding the embryo.
The amniotic membrane was first used in 1910 by Dr. John Davis at John-Hopkins Hospital as a biological material for skin grafting, and has since been utilized in a plethora of medical applications due to the favorable “micro-environment” it presents with anti-inflammatory properties, low immunogenicity an immunomodulatory properties.
Decellularized (acellular) amniotic membrane is an established amniotic fluid derivative product where the cells are removed from tissues and organs by means of physical methods and biological and chemical agents. Because the amniotic membrane is similar to other tissues of the body, the decellularization process does not alter its composition. The extracellular matrix scaffold of the original tissue remains, which has shown “prominent anti-inflammatory properties, mechanical protection, and functional support for cell attachment, proliferation, and migration.”
The extracellular matrix scaffold of the amniotic membrane is made up of glycoproteins such as laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin, nidogen, collagen types I, III, IV, V, VI. Additionally, it contains fetal hyaluronic acid, which provides an anti-fibrogenic effect by suppressing the expression of TGF-b1, b2, b3 and TGF-receptor. Human amniotic membrane also has anti-microbial properties partially due to its physical barrier that provides protection against infectious organisms, but also because it contains transferrin, bactricidin, b-lysin, lysozymes and 7-S immunoglobulins. These properties show anti-bacterial effects against Groups A and B streptococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter.
Amniotic membrane derivative products have great potential in regenerative medicine and are broadly studied all over the world with on-going or completed clinical trials in almost every field of medicine: ophthalmology, plastic surgery, dermatology, cardiology, neurology, urology, diabetology, nephrology, pneumology, hepatology, transplantation, dental surgery, gynecology, orthopedic surgery, and ENT.
Source: Charles-Henri, W., & Ekaterine, B. (2020). Immunomodulatory Properties of Amniotic Membrane Derivatives and Their Potential in Regenerative Medicine. Current Diabetes Reports, 20(8).